What are Nursing Care Services and How They Help RTA Patients?
Road Traffic Accidents (RTA) cause several injuries, however, one of the most critical injury is the head injury. After meeting an unfortunate road traffic accident, a patient is most likely to get a brain injury. So, brain injury management is essential and needs to be adopted at the earliest after the accident. The management of brain Injury usually starts with the emergency service provider team comprising of the doctors, nurses, paramedics, EMTs and volunteers providing first aid. The ultimate goal of the nursing care services for RTA patients is properly recognizing, treating and transporting the brain injured patients to a tertiary care facility.
The responsibilities of EMS provider include the following:
- Ascertaining the right time, location and the probable cause of the injury and the events that precede the road accident
- The primary assessment and the quick management of the Breathing, Airway and Circulatory issues
- Properly obtaining the patient medical history, medications list and allergies, if any
- Providing baseline measurements regarding the vital signs and the consciousness level
- The administering of IV fluids, precautions related to C-Spine and emergency medications
- The proper communication with the hospital/care facility and then administering of the appropriate medications required in emergency conditions
- The stabilizing of the concerned patient’s condition while in field and during the course of en-route towards the hospital
IN THE E.R: PROCESS OF MINIMIZING THE SECONDARY INJURY
The nurses engaged in the phase of E.R. plays an instrumental role in the acute management of the patient who has been severely brain injured. The major goal is in preventing any further secondary injury in the patient’s brain that can probably occur due to the intracranial bleeding,
swelling of the brain, lack of oxygen supply and decrease or increase the level of blood pressure. Minimizing or completely preventing the secondary injury maximizes the chance of the preserving the normal brain function during en route. The principal expectations of the
nurse working in an emergency room include the following:
- Assessment of rapid triage, assigning of the CTAs score and also facilitating all the necessary access to the required medical care
- The establishment and also the maintenance of the airway, especially in cases of serious neck or head injuries
- Making arrangement and providing oxygen or/and mechanical ventilation or/and assistance with the means of intubation in order to maintain the breathing
- The regular monitoring of the vital signs like the pulse, blood pressure, respiration etc.
- The regular monitoring of the neurological status
- The performing of a complete ‘head to toe’ assessment with the purpose of identifying and treating of all injuries
- Following the right way of getting a complete surgical as well as medical history
- Providing the right amount of blood products, IV fluids, and medications that are as per the doctor’s orders
- The arrangement of the diagnostic and laboratory testing equipment as per the orders of the doctor (MRI, CT etc.)
- Anticipation, Recognition & Response to the various changes or deteriorating conditions of the patient condition
- Reporting of the lab results, results related to diagnostic imaging and the various changes in the condition of the patient to the physician
- Providing adequate emotional support & teachings needed by the patient and the patient’s family in this difficult hour
- If the patient is being discharged and allowed to go home from the E.R., the nursing care service provider must provide the discharge teaching
- The nursing care provider should explain the patient’s family members regarding the symptoms and signs that require immediate medical care, the necessary assessments, and the tentative recovery course
ACUTE OR INTENSIVE CARE HOSPITAL: DISCHARGE AND RECOVERY READINESS EXPECTED FROM NURSING CARE SERVICES
Within a patient care setting (hospital ward or ICU), the goal of the prevention of any further brain injury also referred to as the secondary brain injury still continues. The nursing care services include the ongoing, regular assessments of the important signs, the status of the neurological condition, treatment of the injuries and following the orders of the doctor in charge or the team of doctors. Also, the significant developments or changes within the concerned patient must be competently and quickly detected, reported and & documented at the same time. As soon as the medical condition stabilizes, then the complete focus of the nursing care service is to prepare the patient for the discharge to home or to a community care facility. The nursing care services within an acute care setting in a hospital include the following.
- Determining the need for gaining proper access to necessary rehab areas (O.T, P.T., and Mental health)
- Interviewing the patient and his/her family and determining the changes in the personality, aptitude, and ability of the patient
- Documenting the changes or the deficits in coping skills or in terms of memory efficiency
- Determining the various aspects in the patient like impulsivity or anger, confusion, headaches, balance, muscle strength, disturbance in vision and confusion
- Consulting or providing references of joining communities of Nurse Managers
- Providing the right support, education, and expectation for the purpose of recovery of the patient, caregivers, and family.
Overall, the significance of nursing care services in helping the RTA patients to recover is high and unavoidable. So, choosing a rehabilitation center or a facility within the hospital for the proper nursing of the RTA patients is very necessary and should be adopted as soon as the